biji lerak



Detergent is household waste pollute the water with the most potential. With the utilization of natural products that function together with detergent, then water pollution can be avoided, one of them by using lerak. Lerak used to reduce water pollution. Lerak seeds contain saponin, a toxic alkaloid which can bind to molecules and decipher stains on clothing. So the stain lifted.

Through experimental methods, we compare soap fruit detergent with 5 industy detergents. We conclude that the detergent lerak has a level of cleanliness is very fast in the process of removing the stain when soaked, the results are very clean, non-irritating to the skin of the hands and has pH levels is neutral than 5 industry detergents.

Key words: Detergent, Soap Fruit



A. Background
Detergent is the most household waste potentially pollute the water.At this time almost every household detergents to wash clothes, but wastes detergent is very difficult broken down by bacteria. So it remains active for long periods of time. The use of detergent on a large scale also increased content of phosphate compounds in river water or lake. Phosphate is able to stimulate the growth of algae and water hyacinth. The growth of algae and water hyacinth which causes uncontrolled surface water of the lake or river is closed thereby blocking the entry of sunlight into the resulting delays in the process of photosynthesis of water plants. If these aquatic plants die, there will be a process of decay that spends supply of oxygen and deposition of materials that cause siltation of the water area. Looking at the impact of the use of detergents that are difficult decomposed by bacteria and contaminate the water, then its use should be reduced. Alternative use of detergent with natural ingredients is expected to reduce the impact of environmental pollution. One of the natural ingredients that are easily developed using plants (fruits, stems, roots or leaves) lerak.B. Formulation of Problems
1. What are the substances contained in lerak befungsi as a wash?
2. How to make laundry detergent with natural ingredients lerak?
3. How does Fruit Soap removes stains?
4. What are the advantages of using Natural Fruit Soap detergent in comparison with detergent-containing industrial chemicals?

C. Research Objectives
The purpose of this study are:
a. Knowing the substances contained in lerak
b. Knowing how to make Fruit Soap Detergent naturally
c. Knowing how the substances that play a role in removing stains
d. The advantages of using natural Soap Detergent Fruit in comparison with detergent-containing industrial chemicals

D. Benefits of Research
The benefits of this research is to know the substances contained in lerak as washing materials and how to process lerak a natural detergent that does not damage our environment.

A. Characteristics lerakCIU (especially Sapindus rarak De Candole, can also S. mukorossi) or also known as rerek or lamuran is a plant known for its usefulness in its seeds are used as traditional detergents. Batik is usually recommended for lerak washed with washing it is considered as the most suitable material to maintain color quality batik.

Lerak plant a tree and the average has tinggi10 meter although it could reach 42 meters with a diameter of 1 meter, therefore lerak large tree with an equivalent quality teak wood has been felled because it has economic value. Leaves form round-pointed egg, flat-brimmed, short-stemmed and green. Leather-wrapped hard enough seed round like marbles, when fully ripe color is blackish brown, the fruit surface smooth and shiny.

Benefits of Using lerak

Lerak seeds contain saponin, a toxic alkaloid, saponin that produces foam and serves as a washer, and can also be used as a cleaning various kitchen appliances, flooring, and even bathe and clean pets.The content of potentially toxic seed lerak also as an insecticide.Lerak rind can be used as the face to reduce acne and scabies.
Fruit lerak relatively easy to get usually sold in traditional markets.Foam produced from fruit lerak not damage the environment. With biodegradable foam. Fruit lerak relatively easy to get usually sold in traditional markets.
Usually the traditional batik craftsmen who still use lerak to wash batik cloth. Lerak fruit foam will not break the color of batik cloth, but just the opposite. By using the foam in the wash fruit lerak, batik fabric color will last longer.
(Ardita, natural Ferdi.2009.Sabun)
B. Substances Contained In The lerak
Lerak contain saponin, a toxic alkaloid, saponin that produces
foams. Saponin is a glycoside that may exist in many kinds of plants. Saponins exist in all plants with high concentrations in certain parts, and
influenced by a variety of plant and stage of growth. Function in plants is unknown, it can be a storage form of carbohydrate, or a waste product of metabolism of plants. Another possibility is as a protection against insect attack. Saponin properties are:
1. Has a bitter taste
2. In aqueous solution to form a stable foam
3. Menghemolisa erythrocytes
4. Is a strong poison for fish and amphibians
5. Forming compounds with cholesterol and other hydroxysteroid
6. It is difficult to be purified and identified
7. Relatively high molecular weight, and analysis of empirical formula only produces a close.

Saponin on Fruit Soap Detergent, can bind water molecules and decipher stains on clothing. So stains easily lifted.

C. How it Works Detergents in Removing Stains

Soap / detergent is a salt of a carboxylic acid (acid alkanoat).Carboxylic acids having the general structure CnH2nO2, eg vinegar, C2H4O2. Carboxylic acids react with bases to form salts. Salt is commonly called soap and reaction called saponification reaction / saponification. Actually, more specifically, the carboxylic acid used is usually a chain length (number of atoms such as C-palmitate or stearate dozen and usually in the can from fat).
Carbon chains are non-polar and does not attract water, while the “head” him (there is a metal ion) are polar. chain / tail is called the hydrophobic part while the head is called hydrophilic. Dirt is not washed away by water alone is usually a non-polar compounds (because it is insoluble in water). In the soapy water, the soap binding hydrophilic impurities, while the hydrophobic binding of water molecules. Therefore, these impurities are soluble in soapy water. Detergents are usually made from materials which are difficult microorganisms described as soap can be described micro-organisms.

 How to make Fruit Soap Detergent

a. Provide one hundred grams of fruit lerak or about 20 pieces lerakdry.
b. Disposing of hard seeds in them and slashing flesh lerak. Then cook the fruit lerak by as much as 2 liters of water to boil for 20minutes (water will be foamy).
c. Silence to cool and filtered with a soft cloth, so the solution looks clear brown. Next, include this solution in bottles or canslabeled with the date and description of the contents, store them in the shade and will last approximately 7 days. To be more flavorfulfresh, pure oil could add juice, such as tea tree, mint, orange juice or any other pure oils are preferred.
d. This solution could be to wash clothes, either by machine or handwashing, per 6 white cloth and gave the same stain on each cloth.
e. Rubbed and soak for 3 minutes.
f. Rinse and wring the cloth and compare each fabric
been washed by using a different detergent.
g. To eliminate the odor and loosen clothing, could
add baking soda 50 grams, or one-quarter cup vinegar cooking (50cc) in the last rinsing water.
h. Lerak dregs of this solution can also be used to wash the pan
fat, or put in a kitchen composter.
2. Comparing with Detergent Detergent Industry lerak
a. Prepare detergent made ​​lerak and 5 detergent made ​​from chemicals of brand
are different.
b. 6 Setting up the same size container and then pour each
each 0.5 liters of water into each container and mixed with 5 g of the detergent industry.
c. Setting up 6 pieces of white fabric measuring 10 × 10 cm andgave stains
The same sauce on each cloth.
d. Rubbed and soak the cloth that had been given a stain for 3minutes at
in the container.
e. Rinse and squeeze the cloth and comparing each
cloth which had been washed with detergent using a different
The Result


Deterjen A

Deterjen B

Deterjen C

Deterjen D

Deterjen E

Deterjen Lerak

Kecepetan noda hilang pada saat di rendam selama 5 menit

Kurang lebih 5 menit

Lebih dari 5 menit

Kurang dari 5 menit

Lebih dari 5 menit

Kurang dari 5 menit

Lebih dari 5 menit

Tingkat kebersihan



Cukup bersih



Sangat bersih

Iritasi pada kulit di tangan














From the above data can be seen that the ability to remove stainslerak has particularly faster than the detergent industry. Cleanliness level of detergent is very clean, and has a pH of 7 which is an acidic than the detergent industry.
How it Works Substances Contained In The lerakLerak has a substance that plays a role in removing stains whenwashed and soaked in detergent solution lerak. The substance is analkaloid saponin. Saponins bind water molecules and the functiondescribing the stain so that it lifts stains. Chemical reactions that occur in Fruit Soap Detergent is polymerization. Saponin that is onepart of the alkaloid. Saponin molecules that are bound to form a strong bond, so that the molecule can lift stains easily and quickly.
normal pH can maintain a stable ecosystem if the waste in the wasteinto the environment is
seven (7).

A. conclusion
We conclude that the Soap Detergent Fruit is an environmentally friendly natural detergent when compared with detergent-detergentindustry, in terms of results of research conducted. substanceB. suggestion
Advice of researchers are:
1. Lerak raising crops to produce a natural detergent that can keep the environment around the study site.
2. Reducing chemicals when making detergents and utilize plants that can be used as a natural detergent to reduce pollution of landand water.
3. Creating a domestic industry that produces detergents in powder/ bars / cream based lerak.

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